Urology is a surgical speciality of medicine that deals with the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive system.
Urologists are the doctors that specialise in this area and are trained to diagnose, treat and monitor patients with urological disorders.
The organs studied by urologists include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra and the organs of the male reproductive system (testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). The adrenal glands are also part of this speciality, due to the surgical aspect of tumour diseases of the adrenal glands.
When surgery is indicated for an adrenal tumour, the endocrinologist refers the patient to the urologist. In men, the urinary system is part of the reproductive system, whilst in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are located next to each other, which means that the disorders of one tract generally affect the other.
The urologist monitors both non-surgical conditions, like urinary tract infections, and surgical conditions, such as the correction of congenital abnormalities and the surgical treatment of cancers. These abnormalities of the genital region are known as genitourinary disorders.